Many of the small to medium-sized ferns growing in the woods belong to a
large group of woodferns with over 1200 species worldwide, included in the
genus Dryopteris, though some species have had other generic names
such as Aspidium. Many of them are evergreen, remaining under the
snow in the winter time to emerge the following spring. Their leaves are
subdivided and are definitely fernlike and the spore-bearing leaves look much
the same as the sterile ones. Spore cases are covered by a kidney-shaped
fruit-cover or indusium.
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