Conifers produce male and female "spores" in cones
and the seeds are not encased in a fruit. Pollen grains
carried by wind to the female cones grow pollen tubes
that fertilise the ovules and there are no swimming sperm
cells like those of the more primitive plants. This
adaptation to living on land together with the seed
protection offered by the hard scaly female cone has
helped the conifers to be such a successful group.
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