About one ten-thousandth of a second after the Big Bang, protons and neutrons formed, and within a few minutes these particles stuck together to form atomic nuclei, mostly hydrogen and helium. Hundreds of thousands of years later, electrons stuck to the nuclei to make complete atoms.
- Previous Cycles? Before 13.8BYA...
Or something different?
- Big Bang (13.8BYA)
something from nothing?
created the forces of nature
gravity defines space
mass from energy - the first particles
electromagnetism defines photons
charge from energy -> electrons!
strong force forms the nucleus - now atoms are possible!
weak force creates neutrons, also beta decay - radioactivity!
creates Hydrogen and Helium the first atoms and molecules H2 He4
still too hot for millions of years... then!
T > 10eV atoms fall apart - Electromagnetism
T > 1MeV nuclei fall apart - Strong Force
T > 100MeV protons and neutrons fall apart - Weak Force
Post Big Bang Cooling
t > 10^19GeV unknown!
t > 10^14GeV cosmic expansion
t > 100GeV forces separate: free electrons, quarks and gluons
t > 1 microsecond 100MeV = 10^9K protons/neutrons fall apart i.e. all the protons and neutrons known today after this time
t > 1MeV nuclei fall apart
t > 3 minutes 100KeV nucleosynthesis begins
t > 30 minutes 10KeV all nuclei formed in the Big Bang are created before this time
t > 10eV atoms fall apart
t > 300,000 years 0.3eV = 3000K atoms can form after this time, light can travel long distances
t > 14 Billion Years 2.7K average temperature of space today
- The Laws of Physics (13.8BYA)
Gravity defines space time mass graviton
Electromagnetism defines charge photon
Strong Force defines nucleus, binds quarks to form protons/neutrons, gluons
Weak Force extremely short range, turns protons to neutrons thru beta decay, interact with neutrinos
- The First Particles (13.8BYA)
Electron - negative, lightest, fast moving, lepton, first created
Proton + positive, heavier, slower, 3 quarks (up,up,down)=(+2/3,+2/3,-1/3)
Neutron 0 charge, heavier, slower, 3 quarks (up,down,down)=(+2/3,-1/3,-1/3)
- Elements (13.8BYA...)
Nucleosynthesis: Elements by Process
1H 2He -> Big Bang
3Li 4Be 5B -> Cosmic Ray Fission
6C-26Fe -> Fusion in Stars
26Fe-82Pb -> Exploding Supernova
41Nb-92U -> Colliding Neutron Stars
Carbon forms when 3 He2 collide in a star
Carbon begets Oxygen
Carbon and Oxygen expelled from the star
Cosmic Rays break down Carbon and Oxygen to make Lithium and Boron
Typical Stars Life
Burns Produces Temp Time
H He 6x10^7K 7 Million Years
He C,O 2x10^8K 500,000 Years
C O,Ne,Mg 9x10^8K 600 Years
Ne O,Mg,Si 1.7x10^9K 6 months
O Si,S 2.3x10^9 6 days
Si Fe 4x10^9 1 day